Whole grains are made from three parts: bran (outer layer) which contains antioxidants, B vitamins and fibre, endosperm which contains starchy carbohydrates, protein and small amounts of vitamins and minerals, the germ which contains many B vitamins, some protein, minerals and healthy fats.
Refined grains are milled and stripped from both the bran and the germ to give them a fine texture and longer shelf life. This refining process removes most of the nutrients, including fibre, leaving just the starchy carbohydrates which raise blood sugar levels and hunger is present again after a short time of consumption.
High consumption of refined grain products, such as white flour, white bread, cookies and cakes, can increase systematic inflammation. High levels of inflammation can worsen arthritis, increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the consumption of whole-grain products can reduce systematically.
Some good choices of starchy carbohydrates are sweet potatoes, wild rice, quinoa, chickpea/brown rice pasta, whole grain oats.
, R.C. et al. (2010). Whole and refined grain intakes are related to inflammatory protein concentrations in human plasma. J Nutr,140(3):587-94
At the gym, the rowing machine is one of the most underrated pieces of equipment, yet it is one of the most beneficial. Like any other machine, it’s as challenging as you make it. Each stroke needs to be 60% legs, 30% back and core and 20% arms. There is no impact on the joints, builds and strengthens muscle and burns a lot of fat! If you had any doubts about how powerful and effective this machine is, you will remove all doubts after trying this short, intensive workout the next time you’re at the gym!
This Blog Post was written by Romi Galea (M.SC (Birm.) Exercise and Sports Sciences and currently reading a PhD in Sports Nutrition at the University of Chester.